Swakopmund residents from Sesfontein visiting our research exhibition on 15 June 2019 - at left of the image are Future Pasts researchers Mike Hannis, Sian Sullivan & Welhemina Suro Ganuses.
In the first half of June 2019, Welhemina Suro Ganuses, Mike Hannis and I were able to make real our dream to show an exhibition of work from the Future Pasts research project in Namibia.
The Future Pasts project explores how ideas and assumptions about the past – particularly about past relationships between people and the natural world – shape the futures being created now in pursuit of ‘sustainability’. It engages with the interplay of resource extraction, conservation and tourism as these unfold in diverse cultural landscapes that are also home to valued (and endangered) animal and plant species. Our academic contributors draw on an overlapping range of disciplinary approaches to explore these themes: environmental anthropology (Sian Sullivan), environmental ethics (Mike Hannis), ethnomusicology (Angela Impey), medical anthropology (Chris Low) and environmental history (Rick Rohde).
First curated at Gallery 44AD in Bath in July-August 2017, the exhibition Future Pasts: Landscape, Memory and Music in West Namibia journeys through a series of themes we have explored in our research: “place”, “music”, “healing”, “change”, “landscape”, “memory”, “mining”, and lastly "Haiseb" - the complex Dama / ≠Nūkhoen ancestor-hero-trickster character whose mythical antics remind us of the mysterious and unpredictable, as well as the often unfathomable and funny, natures of existence.
The images below and here give some idea of how we set out the exhibition in the Oyetu ('it's ours') Hall at COSDEF Community Arts Venue in Swakopmund (click on the images to enlarge and for more information).
The exhibition opened on 5th June with an evening launch party . . .
Two emphases of our project have been to:
1) document some of the pressures experienced by especially Khoe-speaking Dama / ≠Nūkhoen inhabitants of west Namibia that have often resulted in their marginalisation with regard to land and resources;
and 2) support intangible cultural heritage practices relating especially to identity, place, and the natural and supernatural worlds.
A highlight of our launch, therefore, was an exciting set of performances of |gais praise song-dances by the |Haihāb Cultural Group from Swakopmund, followed by a series of acapella songs led by visitors from Sesfontein / !Nani|aus in north-west Namibia now resident in Swakopmund.
Performance of |gais song-dances by the |Haihāb Cultural Group (for bookings in Namibia please contact Secretary Elly Ta≠gaite on 081 285 7898 / tagaite7 @ gmail.com or Chairman David |Nuseb on 081 255 2077 / dmtnuseb @ gmail.com)
An historical detour to the past world of the Dama 'outlaw' |Haihāb
The |Haihāb Cultural Group is named after a locally famous Dama / ≠Nūkhoen man who evaded and resisted German colonial advance in the early 1900s. Named after his grey (|hai) horse (hāb), |Haihāb ||Guruseb became an outlaw in the Khan [≠Khanni] River and Usakos [!Ūsa!khōs] areas to the east of Swakopmund. He was a son of Abraham ||Guruseb, a chief (gao-aob) in the vicinity of the striking table-topped mountain the Gamsberg [≠Gans] in the upper reaches of the !Khuiseb River, who ‘for some unknown reason had had to leave that area for the area near |Â≠gommes (Okombahe)’.
It is tempting to consider the possibility that Abraham ||Guruseb and associates were connected with the 'Hill Damara' village encountered only a handful of decades earlier by the British Captain James Edward Alexander. In his narrative Alexander writes of Hill Dama living autonomously in the foothills of the "'Tans mountain", carrying bows, spears and the spoils of hunting, their dwellings containing conical clay pots in every hut. He describes their dances and healing practices, noting that the men dance ‘with springbok horns bound on their foreheads’.
(L) A 'Hill Damara' village in foothills of the table-topped 'Tans [≠Gans] Mountain, as sketched in the 1830s narrative by British Captain James Edward Alexander ; (R) the Gamsberg white-owned commercial farming area as it is today (photo by Sian Sullivan 080314).
The years immediately following Alexander's travels saw many disruptions in this area: the expanding sphere of influence of the ambitious Oorlam Nama leader Jonker Afrikaner; increasing European incursion into the interior of the territory and the opening up and defence of trade routes; and escalating conflict between Herero and Nama pastoralists as they vied for the rich grazing lands of the central highlands. It is likely that this combination of pressures increasingly pushed 'Hill Dama' / ≠Nūkhoen out of the hilly terrain of the upper !Khuiseb: leading both to Abraham ||Guruseb's relocation northwards, and to his son |Haihāb's antipathy towards those considered to be invaders into territory previously used and moved through freely by ≠Nūkhoen.
In any case, from the late 1800s it was already being reported that 'a small band of marauders' were making the district of Otjimbingwe unsafe. The disruption caused by |Haihāb and followers to consolidating colonial ox-wagon transport and cattle stock-posts led to a price of 500 Marks being placed on |Haihāb's head by 1901 (and 100 Mark for each of his proven allies), and a local German newspaper published suggestions that Africans - specifically Witboois - should be hired to ‘assist in the hunt for |Haihāb’.
By early 1903, |Haihāb's activities had reached as far as the colonial authorities in Berlin, leading to a request to the imperial government in Windhoek 'to terminate the robberies through appropriate action’. In May 1903, German colonial Governor Theodor Leutwein approached Captain !Nanseb Hendrik Witbooi in Gibeon for the supply of horsemen to search for |Haihāb.
The commando based itself at Aukas / Aukhās - an outspan on the Khan River some 16km south-west of Usakos. They found footprints of |Haihāb’s ‘gang’ at various locations in this rugged terrain. At Charadeb waterhole they startled a group who took flight, at which point Lieutenant Müller von Berneck orders his men “to fire on the fleeing”, killing several, including a woman and a boy. The tough and ‘extremely shrewd’ |Haihāb was eventually shot on 30 September ‘in the area between the Khan River and the Chuos mountains’. His wrist was reportedly cut off for presenting to the authorities.
Map showing |Haihāb ||Guruseb's sphere of influence from the late 1800s to his death at the hands of the German colonial authorities and collaborating Witbooi troopers in 1903. A fully referenced and annotated map can be viewed here.
In our exhibition the striking landscape of this Khan River landscape features in one of our sets of repeat photographs, collated by Future Pasts researcher Rick Rohde. The images show change in the biophysical and built environment at specific places throughout west Namibia. At the Khan River local inhabitants at the railway station built as the German colonial regime gained territorial control are clearly visible in an archival photograph from 1906. No traces of the railway station remain in the present, the site being dominated now instead by a new road-bridge built to service Husab Uranium Mine, owned by the China General Nuclear Power Group.
Left - Khan River Bahn Station, 1906 (F. Lange) - two Damara women with children posing in the dry riverbed with the Khan Railway Station in the background. This narrow gauge railway was the first rail link between Swakopmund and Windhoek, built under German Colonial rule between 1897 and 1902.
Right - Khan River Bridge, 2016 (R. Rohde, E. Erb & M.T. Hoffman) - by 2016 all traces of the original German railway have disappeared and been replaced by the private Khan Road Bridge. Built in 2015, the bridge was constructed to access and develop the new Husab Uranium Mine, owned by the China General Nuclear Power Group.
These repeat photographs taken of the Khan River in the Namib Desert illustrate the apparent lack of change in the river’s ecology in contrast to the changing political and economic development under colonial and neoliberal contexts.
On visiting our exhibition |Haihāb Chairman David |Nuseb wrote of the importance of documenting especially the stories and knowledge of senior people in the Dama / ≠Nūkhoen community, urging that this 'wonderful work' may continue.
We were also delighted that several representatives of two of our partner organisations - Save the Rhino Trust and Gobabeb Namib Research Institute - were able to visit the exhibition. Gobabeb's Research Manager Eugène Marais wrote of how much he appreciated how the exhibition shares 'stories, memories and knowledge of the people that inhabit the spaces that we so often pass through and know so little about'. Jeff Muntifering, Science Advisor to Save the Rhino Trust, wrote that the exhibition encompasses a 'very inspiring collection of stories & song - so worth preserving!' Basilia Shivute of IRDNC (Integrated Rural Development and Nature Conservation) shared how the exhibition made her feel 'proud of our national cultural heritage' and specifically thanked Welhemina Suro Ganuses - Future Pasts Namibian research collaborator from Sesfontein - for 'being our ambassador'.
Some visitors were Namibian residents or tourists to the country who heard about the exhibition through word of mouth:
'A most informative exhibition showing survival of indigenous people in a harsh, yet so beautiful landscape! Memories of these peoples are collected and displayed, which is very important for the memories of Namibians' (Swakopmund resident)
'Super-interesting exhibition - it's great to see the changes that took place across these different themes. The situations of change from various sources is really awesome to see'
(Tourist from Edinburgh, Scotland)
In the second week of the exhibition, around 200 students from two Swakopmund High Schools braved the dramatic seasonal east wind to visit the exhibition.
Sesfontein / !Nani|aus
A personal highpoint of the exhibition was being able to share our research with young people from families in Sesfontein I have known over the last 25 years. Many of the younger people in these families have sought work and opportunities in the coastal town of Swakopmund, but their circumstances remain precarious and their options limited.
Ganuses and Tauros homes in Sesfontein in north-west Namibia (1995) and the informal settlement of 'DRC' (Democratic Resettlement Community) in Swakopmund (2018).
Nonetheless, they spoke with enthusiasm at seeing stories and knowledge of senior members in their families represented in the oral history / 'memory' section of the exhibition, and of how much they valued seeing images of people they know. As Jansen Taurob from Sesfontein wrote in our comments book,
I or rather we are so grateful that Sian and partners have over the years continued with the FUTURE PASTS project. The project brings to life and revives the the culture, traditions and memories of our people's untold land. It is a documentation of our peoples rich history. The residents of the north west Namibia through this project have the opportunity to tell their stories/history and how they were affected by changes and how they face the future.
A few weeks ago you took my aunt Julia Tauros on a trip to Purros, the place of her birth and burial site of her grand-mother. She told me how she felt by saying "I am so happy to have gone back and seen our father's dwelling place and burial site of my ancestors. Now I am happy. Even if I die I will die a happy person". Jansen Taurob (Purros-damab) Namibia.
The exhibition Future Pasts: Landscape, Memory and Music in West Namibia is fully transportable and we are potentially interested in bookings in galleries or other spaces. Please email futurepastscontact @ gmail.com with any enquiries.
The exhibition is accompanied by an explanatory booklet that is free to download here.
Our visitors' comments book for the COSDEF exhibition is viewable here.
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Twitter - @Future_Pasts
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To book the |Haihāb Cultural Group, contact
Secretary Elly Ta≠gaite on 081 285 7898 / tagaite7 @ gmail.com
Chairman David |Nuseb on 081 255 2077 / dmtnuseb @ gmail.com
Many thanks to Jessica le Grangé, Michelle ||Inixas and all the staff at COSDEF for hosting our exhibition with so much generosity and enthusiasm! We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Arts and Humanities Research Council, Bath Spa University, the National Museum of Namibia, Gobabeb Research Institute and Save the Rhino Trust in preparing and curating the exhibition.
 Haacke, W. 2010 The hunt for the Damara |Haihāb in 1903: contemporary oral testimony. Journal of Namibian Studies 8: 7-25, p. 23.
 Alexander, J.E. 2006(1938) An Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa: Through the Hitherto Undescribed Countries of the Great Namaquas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras, Vols..1 and 2. Elibron Classics Series, orig. published by London: Henry Colburn, Vol. 2, pp. 135-138.
 Oorlam Nama = people with variously 'mixed Khoesan and slave descent, acculturated to the Dutch settler way of life, and having horses, guns, and the Bible' who moved northwards into Namibia as the Cape Colony frontier expanded and asserted dominance over local Khoe, including Dama / ≠Nūkhoen. See for example Kinahan, Jill 2017 No need to hear your voice, when I can talk about you better than you can speak about yourself…’ Discourses on knowledge and power in the !Khuiseb Delta on the Namib Coast, 1780-2016 CE. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 21(2): 295-320, p. 303 (after Penn, N. 2005 The Forgotten Frontier: Colonist and Khoisan on the Cape’s Northern Frontier in the Eighteenth Century. Athens: Ohio University Press, pp. 200, 217), and especially Lau, B. 1987 Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner’s Time. Windhoek: Archeia 8, National Archives of Namibia.).
 Narrative summarised from Haacke op. cit.